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Management consultants

Companies increasingly rely on management consultants to help them remain competitive. Management consultants analyze and propose ways to improve an organization’s structure, efficiency, and profits.

Entry Requirements

This occupation requires at least a four-year degree. Employers prefer to hire management consultants with a master’s degree in business administration or related discipline and at least 5 years of experience in the field they plan to work.

Average salary is $76,500 a year.

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Information Systems Managers

Information systems managers direct the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and other computer-related workers. They use advanced technical knowledge to oversee a variety of activities. Information systems managers plan and coordinate activities such as the installation and upgrading of hardware and software; programming and systems design; the development of large computer networks; and the implementation of Internet and Intranet sites. Information systems managers analyze the computer and information needs of their organization and determine personnel and equipment requirements. They assign and review the work of computer staff and purchase necessary equipment.

Entry Requirements

A bachelor’s degree is required for information systems manager positions. Some employers prefer a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) with technology; strong technical knowledge is essential. Most employers prefer to hire those with computer experience as systems analysts, support specialists, programmers, or others. Employers want managers who have experience with a specific software or technology to be used on the job, as well as a background in either consulting or business management.

Average salary is $111,000 a year.

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Database Administrators

Database administrators control the day-to-day operations of a computer database. They determine who can see which parts of a database by defining the rights of each user. They protect the database by backing it up daily or more often. When a computer crashes, power goes out, or other problems occur, they correct errors in the database caused by these problems. It may take a few minutes or several hours to correct the errors.

Entry Requirements

Employers prefer to hire database administrators with a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information science, or management information systems (MIS). Management information systems programs are usually part of a business school or college. Some employers prefer individuals with a master’s degree in business administration (MBA), plus a concentration in information systems, as more firms move their business to the Internet. Continuous education and study is necessary to keep up with the rapid advances in computer technology.

Average salary is $83,000 a year.

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Foresters

Foresters manage, develop, use, and help protect forests and other natural resources. Those working in private industry may get timber from private landowners. To do this, foresters get in touch with local forest owners and get permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of standing timber on the land, a process known as timber cruising. Foresters figure the worth of the timber, negotiate the buying of the timber, and draw up a contract. They subcontract for tree removal, help in road layout, and keep close contact with workers and landowners to make sure work meets specifications and requirements. Throughout the process, foresters consider the economics of the purchase as well as the environmental impact on natural resources.

Entry Requirements

A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational requirement for foresters. Foresters who wish to enter into specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. Some states have mandatory licensing or registration requirements that a forester must meet in order to acquire the title Professional Forester. Becoming licensed or registered usually requires a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing an exam.

Average salary is $55,500 a year.

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Aquaculturists (Fish Farmers)

Aquaculturists or fish farmers cultivate and harvest finfish, shellfish, and other aquatic or marine life in ponds or tanks. They collect marine life, such as finfish or shellfish, using nets, lines, pots, shovels, tongs, or dredge baskets.

Entry Requirements

Aquaculturists should have at least a bachelor’s degree in aquaculture and courses in agribusiness. The government has regulations affecting site development, water use and discharge. Species permits, and marketing regulations vary from state to state. Permits may be required or production and/or marketing may even be prohibited. Prospective aquaculturists should contact the state Cooperative Extension Service and wildlife fisheries agencies to determine if permits or licenses are required for a proposed aquacultural project.

Average salary is $55,000 a year.

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Ship captains

Ship captains are in overall command of the operation of ships and all departments and individuals aboard ships that transport passengers, freight, and other cargo across oceans, bays, lakes, and coastal waters. Ship captains direct the work of the other officers and the crew. They set the course and speed and maneuver the vessel to avoid reefs, outlying shoals, other ships, and other hazards. Ship captains periodically determine the geographical position of the ship using charts, navigational aids, and celestial observations. They calculate landfall (sighting of land). Ship captains give orders or signal crew members who steer the vessel, operate engines, signal to other ships, perform maintenance and handle lines, or operate towing or dredging gear. Ship captains use a pilot when guiding the ship through hazardous waters, when entering or leaving an unfamiliar port, or when passing through locks.

Entry Requirements

Entry, training, and educational requirements for most water transportation jobs are established and regulated by the U.S. Coast Guard. All officers and operators of commercially operated vessels must be licensed by the Coast Guard. To qualify for deck or engineering officer’s license applicants must accumulate sea time (5-8 years) and meet regulatory requirements, or must graduate from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy or one of the six state maritime academies, and pass a written exam. The academies offer a bachelor’s degree and a license as a third mate. With experience and more training, third officers may qualify for a higher rank and eventually become a ship captain.

Average salary is $71,000 a year.

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Aircraft Pilots

Aircraft pilots are highly trained professionals who fly airplanes and helicopters to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Although most pilots transport passengers, cargo, and mail, others dust crops, spread seed for reforestation, test aircraft, direct firefighting efforts, track criminals, monitor traffic, rescue and evacuate injured persons, and take aerial photographs. Helicopter pilots are involved in firefighting, police work, rescue, construction, and various other operations.

Entry Requirements

All aircraft pilots who are paid to transport passengers or cargo must have a commercial pilot’s license with an instrument rating issued by the FAA. Applicants must have 250 hours of flight experience. Airline pilots must have an airline transport pilot’s license. Applicants must have 1500 hours of flying experience, including night and instrument flying, and must pass FAA written and flight examinations. Most pilots have a college degree. The armed forces is an important source of trained pilots for civilian jobs. Those without armed forces training may become pilots through flight schools. The FAA has certified about 600 civilian flying schools.

Average salary is $99,500 a year.

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Blue-collar Worker Supervisors

For the millions of workers who assemble manufactured goods, service electronic equipment, work in construction, load trucks, or perform thousands of other activities, a blue-collar worker supervisor is the boss. Blue-collar worker supervisors may also be called first-line supervisors, or foremen/forewomen. In the textile industry, these supervisors may be called second hands; on ships, they may be called boatswains. In the construction industry, supervisors can be referred to as superintendents or crew chiefs.

Entry Requirements

Completion of high school is often the minimum educational requirement to become a blue-collar worker supervisor, but workers generally receive training in human resources, computer software, and management before they advance to these positions. Although many workers still rise through the ranks with high school diplomas, employers increasingly seek applicants with post-secondary technical degrees. In high-technology industries such as aerospace and electronics, employers may require a bachelor’s degree or technical school training.

Average salary is $50,500 a year.

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